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How to Reference a Book using the Harvard Referencing Style

Printed books are perhaps the most used resources to support arguments in academic papers, especially essays and theses. In this blog entry, we will talk about how to reference printed books following the Harvard referencing style.

The general format is as follows:

Surname, INITIALS. Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

If you cite a book written by only one author, the reference would look like this example.

Mendler, A.N. 2012. When teaching gets tough: Smart ways to reclaim your game. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Its corresponding direct citation in the text would be:

Mendler (2012) states….

An indirect citation would be like:

A teacher should choose her attitude as a strategy (Mendler, 2012)

If you cite a book written by more than one author, the reference should be written as follows:

Moss, C.M. and Brookhart, S.M. 2012. Learning targets: Helping students aim for understanding in today’s lesson. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

The direct citation would be:

As Moss and Brookhart (2012) point out..

The indirect one would be:

Engaging students is a must (Moss and Brookhart, 2012)

If you want to have accurate references, submit your work to Proofread My Essay.

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How to Reference an Edited Book Using APA Style

When an edited book should be referenced the editor appears in the place where the author is usually cited.

According to the APA referencing style, the reference of an edited book should look like:

Editor’s Surname, INITIALS. (Ed.). (Year). Title of book. City, State abbreviation or country if relevant: Publisher

Let us see two examples of how an edited book should be referenced using the APA style:

Lambert, N.M. & McCombs, B. (Eds.). (1998). How students learn: Reforming schools through learner-centered education. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association

Noll, J.W. (Ed.). (2011). Taking sides: Clashing views on educational issues. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill

Both paraphrase and quotation in-text citations require to treat the editor(s) as the author(s) of the book.

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Follow These Guidelines to Improve Your Writing Skills

Students often learn from experience and the mistakes they make. This is one way in which writing skills can be improved. Providing information is not enough; you have to be interesting and engaging at the same time. In this article we discuss some tips to improve your writing skills.

Make Writing a Habit

It is not possible to develop writing skills overnight. Students hoping to improve their skills need to make writing a habit and include it as part of their routine. If you write regularly, for a set period of time, it is likely you will improve your writing skills dramatically. It will also help to improve your productivity.

Use the Best Writing Tools

Use the best writing tools to make your writing more effective. Technology can help you maintain a consistent format throughout the document. Use tools you are comfortable with to create a great piece with a uniform format to engage your readers and achieve higher marks.

Write As You Would Speak

To make your writing more clear, practice writing how you speak. To avoid misunderstanding in your academic documents the language you use should be very clear.

Get Feedback

Once you have finished writing ask your peers or friends to proofread your documents. Collate all the feedback and suggestions as it will help you in making your writing more readable.

Read a Lot

Make reading a habit as it helps you gain knowledge. By reading material from multiple sources you will acquire knowledge on any topic. Thus, researching the topic you have chosen to write on will allow you to include suitable information.

Consider your Target Audience

No matter what your subject, be it non-academic or academic writing, your target audience should always be considered. Use language in your writing that will impress your readers. Focus on writing style and choose your words accordingly, construct impeccable sentences and include relevant information to make your writing standout among numerous other articles.

Practice Writing

You should practice writing prior to starting the actual document. Practicing will help you in improving your writing skills by correcting common mistakes you make. Thus, you will begin to write documents with fewer errors.

You can definitely develop incredible writing skills that will help you to submit a well written variety of documents. Focus on the points mentioned here and cultivate this essential skill. Hiring professional academic proofreading services can also help you to identify and understand your weak points.

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Reasons to Avoid Grammar Checking Software

Once you’ve finished writing academic documents such as assignments, thesis and dissertations it is necessary to check for errors before submitting it to your university, if you want to achieve the highest grades. There are various tools available for checking grammar and although they are decent tools for some grammar errors, they are not to be relied on as it is probable that they will miss some mistakes which can only be detected by humans.

To locate and correct these errors you can purchase academic proofreading services offered by professional proofreaders to ensure you submit flawless documents and papers to your college or university.

Reasons to Avoid Grammar Checkers

  • Grammar is the art of constructing meaningful sentences. There are many aspects to be considered in forming grammatically correct sentences. Sentence structure, vocabulary, syntax etc. all have to be considered. Grammar checkers are merely computer programs which compare sentences with grammatical combinations programmed into it.
  • It is not possible to program every correct combination of words into grammar checkers, thus they cannot assess written English as they are incapable of reading the English language.
  • A computer program can only highlight certain errors. It may even detect some which are not actually errors. To avoid this you must be wary when using a grammar checker for checking your documents.
  • Grammar software will help you to find spelling mistakes, typos etc. but when it comes to checking the flow of sentences it cannot give you reliable results. Thus, human editors are better than machine software, as only a human editor will have the ability to locate genuine errors and make your document completely accurate.
  •  They cannot differentiate between confusing words. It might not find an error if the same kind of word is being used in place of the correct word. For instance, it might not differentiate between its and it’s. Though both words have different meanings, grammar checking software cannot recognise this difference and it will not consider it to be an error.

These are the reasons to avoid grammar checking software and to check your document prior to your submission to your university. Use proofreading services offered by professionals to make your academic documents flawless.

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How to Write an Effective Dissertation

Once you have decided the topic of your dissertation, the next step involves research about the topic. Writing the dissertation might be difficult but the topic you select can make all the difference. Choosing a dissertation topic, therefore, is an art in itself.

Thesis writing for PhDs is a challenging task and appropriate guidelines can help writers to create great writing. In this article, we have focused on the aspects that can help you create an effective dissertation.

Tips for Dissertation Writing

Topic Selection

The dissertation topic you select should be engaging enough to keep you interested for the entire length of the course. Rare or unusual topics are good as your research will be unique, and may contribute useful knowledge to your field.

List the Key Points

Once you decide on your dissertation topic, list the key points that need to be addressed. Listing the key points can help you to organise your research effectively. It is advisable to note every crucial detail you gather along with the key points of your academic writing. You can also read dissertations written by other students if you feel this helps you. However, the best method of learning to write well is to read the best academic writers and try to imitate their style. In time, you will develop your own unique writing style.

Structure your Dissertation Writing

It is advisable to select topics that will allow you to brainstorm the areas that your dissertation topic needs to cover. Structuring the dissertation is the third step after topic selection and listing the key points. This step will allow you to make your writing clear and effective. A good structure for dissertation writing requires intense research about the topic you select in order to make sure that you address the most pressing concerns to do with your dissertation first.

Refer to Dissertation Examples

Referring to dissertation examples can also help you perfect your writing and get some great ideas. You should always select a proper format for writing dissertations so that you can also avoid some common mistakes. Learning from mistakes is a good habit.

Get Suggestions from Professors

Once you have written your first draft of your dissertation, get it checked by your professors and take on board their suggestions. Modify or edit your academic writing to show the changes suggested by the professors. This will help you to achieve the best grades possible when you finally submit your PhD thesis.

Using dissertation proofreading services offered by professional proofreaders can also help you acquire good grades in your academic writing.

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Word Choice: Envelop vs. Envelope

When two words look or sound similar, it can be very easy to misuse them. This is true of spoken and written communication, but it is especially important in written communication. The audience of written communication must rely on one’s words and punctuation alone to grasp a message. As a result, word choice is very important in writing.

Envelop and evelope look and sound quite similar. In this blog I will briefly explain when to use each of these words. I will also give a great tip for improving your ability to communicate through writing.

Envelop is a verb meaning ‘to cover’ or ‘to enclose’. For example, it would be appropriate to use envelop in the following way: “As the buildings in the square began to burn, smoke started to envelop the crowd”.

Envelope is a noun which refers to a container that is used to send things in the post or mail. For example, we might say, “Did you post the money? Yes, I put it in an envelope and took it to the post office this afternoon”. While we might not normally speak this way, we could technically say, “The envelope enveloped the letter”.

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Word Choice: Cel, Cell, and Sell?

It can be easy to mix up the words cel, cell, and sell when writing. They sound exactly the same when spoken, and cel and cell look similar. However, these three words are completely different entities. It is important to make the right word choice for your sentence. Paying careful attention to the words you choose can greatly improve your written communication, and help those reading your work better grasp what you are trying to express. Below is a simple explanation of when cel, cell, and sell should be used.

Cel is a shortened form of celluloid – a durable mouldable material that has been used to make film, toiletries, and other goods. You probably won’t need to use cel as often as you use the words cell and sell. Still, it is good to know what cel means.

Cell can have at least three meanings. It can mean a small, enclosed space, as in a prison cell. It can refer to a basic biological structural unit present in all organisms. And it can be used as a shortened form of the word cellular – as in cell phone.

While cel and cell are nouns referring to things, sell is a verb; it refers to doing something. To sell something is to exchange it for money. For example, “I don’t want my cell phone anymore so I am going to sell it.”

Now that you know the difference between cel, cell, and sell, you should be able to avoid using those words incorrectly. Still, it can be challenging sometimes to spot all the mistakes in your own writing. To make sure that your writing is as clear and expressive as it can be, submit it to proofreading services. The team at Proofread My Essay can make sure that your word choice is correct ever time.

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